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This page stems from the early work conducted by the CENS Project Team during the period from 2001-2005. It is here left for archive purposes.
(Originally published during 2003)
CENS Project Phase-0 (2001-2005)
The CO2 for EOR in the North Sea (CENS) Project will initially capture CO2 from the five large coal-fired power plants currently operated by Elsam in West Denmark. The proposed CO2 capture facilities can be phased into operation starting 2007 through to 2012.
The possibility of also integrating additional plants in East Denmark could permit production to grow from 6 up to 15 mtCO2/yr by 2012.
The technology for CO2-capture is based on post-combustion scrubbing of the emitted flue gas after it has already passed through Flue Gas Desulfurisation (FGD) for reduction of SOx and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for removing NOx.
Capturing over 90% of the CO2 emitted from Elsam´s coal-fired power plants is commercially competitive because:
* Ultra clean flue-gas with FGD and SCR are already installed.
* The flue-gas concentration is 12–14% CO2, which is three times the concentration for Natural Gas power plants.
* Steam at 290 bar / 580 °C minimises efficiency drop in conjunction with integration of amine capture technology.
* Integration with district heating also helps reduce loss in overall plant efficiency.
* Close proximity to North Sea CO2-Infrastructure.
* Potential production of 10–15 mtCO2/yr from 5 plants.
The estimated cost of capture per tonne CO2 comprises an operational component and a capital investment component. Drying and compression to 140 barg must also be included before the CO2 is ready for transport at the plant perimeter fence.
A computer generated image of the amine capture plant as proposed for the Esbjergværket 380 MW coal-fired power plant is shown within the red box below. It is proposed that Esbjergværket would be the first plant for installation of the post-combustion amine stripping unit.
The size of the unit within the red box is roughly four times larger than existing commercial amine units: however it is similar in size to the already installed FGD plant adjacent, and does not represent any major new challenges from an operational viewpoint.
CENS proposes that transportation through an integrated on-shore / offshore pipeline infrastructure should be based on a postage stamp tariff that is independent upon distance. To date the Project is comfortable with indicating that the cost of delivered CO2 at the platform will be below $35 /tCO2.
An overview of a proposed infrastructure capable of transporting 30 mtCO2/yr to be developed in the period 2007 – 2012 is shown in the adjacent figure. It is here envisaged that an additional 15 mtCO2/yr can be supplied from sources in the UK.
The fields Brae and Sleipner are possible suppliers having CO2 that needs to be removed from current gas production before being acceptable for sale. Interestingly there are numerous other fields in the same vicinity that have so far not been developed because the associated CO2 was viewed as a pollutant rather than a product that could have a possible sale value.
Based on experience from existing CO2-floods in other parts of the world, CENS estimates the economics for commercial use of CO2 in North Sea oil reservoirs is between $10 – $15 /tCO2. This assumes oil price between $18 – $24 /bbl and continuation of the existing fiscal regime.
The CENS Project delivery price at the platform is $30 – $35 /tCO2. There is therefore a difference of $15 – $25 /tCO2 that needs to be covered before companies can invest in the project.
The remainder of these web pages show additional information regarding the CENS Project. Within the Project we have also analysed the impact of taxation, deferred decommissioning, technology development, macroeconomics, credit-trading and positive environment impact, which all together bring quantifiable benefits to the host governments.
With a potential for sequestering 700 mtCO2 over a 20-year project life, we observe that CENS is one of the cheapest CO2-avoidance options available on a scale and timeframe that can impact the Kyoto-I period during 2008-2012. The Project also has favourable longer-term implications for development in the post-Kyoto period after 2012.
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